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Four raw materials are required for beer production

1. Barley
- Is the main RM for beer production
- High starch content & the husk still adheres to the grain
- Before use barley must be converted into malt
- Unmalted cereals ; maize , rice, sorghum, barley & wheat or product made form them are often used as adjuncts

Barley are divided into
1. Two-row barley and
Six-row barley
2. Winter barley and
Spring barley
3. Malting barley and
Feed barley

2. Hops
- Give beer its bitter taste & an effect on the aroma
- Each Spring the root-stock produces shoots growing straight upwards for several internodes
- The shoots then begin to twist in a clockwise direction around the support; at the same time the stem twists to form a ‘spiralling narrow helix’.
- The stem is hexagonal in cross-section with 6 rows of hairs on the 6 ridged corners helping the hop cling to the support
- As the hop grows, lateral shoots (‘laterals’) develop from the buds in the axils of the leaves and the main stem
- Eventually flowers develop on the laterals; good lateral growth is essential for a good hop yield

3. Water
- Water of the required quality for use as the brewing or distilling liquor is crucial in creating the beer and whisky’s character.
- Water is also required for general utility purposes such as cleaning in order to maintain the necessary hygienic conditions within the process.
- Water is also used to pack lines and tanks thereby excluding oxygen.

4. Yeast
-  To alcoholic fermentation
-  Great effect on beer quality because of the effect of its by-products
-  Yeast are unicellar microorganisms with can obtain the energy in the aerobic or anaerobic
-  Fungi species Saccharomyces ceriviseae are used
-  Structure & composition of the yeast cell, yeast cell is oval to round with length of 8-10 micron & breadth of 5-7 micron
-  Yeast cell can only be seen under a microscope consist

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