What is an adjunct?
By adjunct one means “any carbohydrate source other than mated barley which contributes sugars to the wort” — UK Food Standard Committee
Adjunct using purpose
An adjunct is used, because….
1. To improve beer quality e.g. taste and flavor stability, improve head retention, change beer color, improve degree of fermentation (RDF), Reduces amount of polyphenols.
2. Cost reduction (Economy) e.g. reduces malt cost (some adjunct provides cheap extract), increase brewing capacity and energy savings, reduces demand of mashing equipment and aids high gravity brewing.
3. Chang beer characteristics e.g. change color, foam or flavor.
Types of brewing adjunct
Basic raw cereal: barley, wheat
Raw grits: corn (maize), rice, sorghum
Flaked: corn, rice, barley, oats
Torrefied/micronised: corn, barley, wheat
Flour/Starch: corn, wheat, rice, potato, cassava, soya, sorghum
Liquid – glucose syrups, sucrose syrups, invert sugars, malt extract, caramel, priming sugar
Malted cereals other than barley: wheat, oats, rye, sorghum
1. Starch; provides cheap extract
2. Protein; some adjuct dilutes protein level which effect on beer stability e.g. wheat glycoprotein stabilises foam, wheat gluten effect on filtration problems.
3. Beta-glucans, pentosans; barley highest, sorghum lowest but not full story – sorghum beta-glucan is highly soluble and so filtration difficulties.
3. Lipids; some adjunct contribute more fat which cause of “stale” flavours, cause of foam collapse.
4. Inorganic materials; e.g. Zn, Cu, Ca, Mg, Fe, P and S. May have meaning as growth factor of some yeast- strains, but balance is important.
5. Color; some adjuncts can be used to improve beer color.
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