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Beer Protein Analysis

Beer Protein Analysis

About 35% of beer proteins are found in wort as soluble nitrogen. This protein is called Kolbach index. It does not completely tell the protein modification of malt, but gives an indication. Beer protein has mainly influence on the beer quality e.g. influence on beer head formation and retention and influence on finished beer chemical stability due to the potential …

Facts about Gluten Free Beer

Facts about Gluten Free Beer

Gluten Free Beer is beer made from ingredients not containing glycoprotein (gluten). People who have celiac disease or dermatitis herpetiformis are known to be gluten intolerance. Thet will therefore react to foods with certain proteins especially in the grains that are commonly used to make beer, in wheat and barley. The hordein ingridents found in barley or the gliadins found …

Is yeast growth related to the final beer character?

Is yeast growth related to the final beer character?

In case of higher yeast growth, the lower of esters synthesis will be, but the concentration of fusel alcohols will correspondingly be increased. The root cause for this correlation is that the acetyl co-A has a double function in the yeast metabolism. The acetyl co-A is involved both in the production of esters and lipids. High aeration rate will be …

Kettle Finings

Kettle Finings

Kettle finings have traditionally been used in the brewhouse to clarify wort to improve clarity in the final beer. Although clarity is not in all beers seen as a sign of quality, but it is the case in the majority of beers. A desirable characteristic of hot break formation during wort boiling and whirl-pooling is to have a rapid flocculation …

How Beer Bitterness Loss?

How Beer Bitterness Loss?

Beer bitterness is expressed in Bitterness Unit (BU) often also termed IBU (IBU = International Bitterness Units) roughly corresponding to mg of iso-alpha-acids per lite wort or beer.
Beer bitterness is measured by the spectrophotometric method although HPLC can be used for a more specific determination of the bitter substances.
Beer bitterness loss during the process is due to the following facts:
1. …

Turbidity and Haze Formation in Beer

Turbidity and Haze Formation in Beer

Haze is formed by aggregation of degraded proteins and condensed polyphenols. And the consumer expect a brilliant clear beer and this is the normal situation. Beer haze formation is accelerated by:
Polyphenol and Protein
The most common haze becomes from interaction of proteins with
polyphenols. Limiting the concentration of either one or both of these compounds is used as strategies to control haze …

Cleaning and Disinfection

Cleaning and Disinfection

Cleaning is separation, absorption and/or removal dirt from any surface.
Disinfection is deactivation of microorganism in order to avoid infections.
We should be cleaning and disinfection always both step because of residual soil can impair the efficiency of disinfectants and soil may shield microorganisms from the disinfectants. The factors decisive to an optimal cleaning and disinfection results are temperature, concentration, mechanical force …

Gravity Liquor

Gravity Liquor

Gravity Liquor (GL) is water, which has been treated by de-aerated and carbonated that it is suitable for dilution to beer. High gravity beer required GL to dilution it to achieved alcohol target as saleable beer.
The GL quality should be…
- without any taste and off-flavor
- non any microbiological infected
- without any pesticides, herbicides and chlorine component
- calcium content not higher …

5 Most Important Substances in Wort

5 Most Important Substances in Wort

The most important substances in wort for the yeast activities during beer fermentation are
1. Fermentable Sugar
If we are increasing the fermentable Sugar (glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, maltotriose) in cold wort, the cell growth of yeast per ml wort is the same, also means an increased production of higher alcohols, however, the increase of fermentable sugar is not proportional with the …

Prevent Yeast Autolysis

Prevent Yeast Autolysis

Want to prevent yeast autolysis? Autolysis of yeast cell is break-up of the yeast cell on its own. Deficiency of nutrients, high temperature and alkaline condition enhance autolysis. If yeast is left to fully fermented beer for too long time they will be autolysis and cause of off-flavor in your beer. How? When a yeast cell dies, reductase enzyme will …

Sulfur Compounds in Beer

Sulfur Compounds in Beer

How to understand sulfur compounds produced during fermentation.
Sulfur compounds are mostly produced by lager yeasts, although they are produced by ale yeasts as well. These compounds are at the root of off-flavors as diverse as skunk, rubber, and vegetables, but they can also serve as antioxidants. Sulfur sources are methionine, cysteine, thiamine and polypeptides, proteins and sulphate ion. Brewing yeast …

Ester Production in Beer

Ester Production in Beer

Esters fare responsible for the fruity aromas. It’s produced during fermentation that can vary in taste and aroma between pears, roses, bananas or other light fruits. Depending on the style of beer, esters play a major role. Top fermenting beer often have more fruity esters reminiscent of apples, pears, and dark fruit. In very high concentration it can create a …

What happens if fermentation temperature is too high?

What happens if fermentation temperature is too high?

One of the most important factor for good beer fermentation is temperature. Understanding what happens during fermentation when temperatures fluctuate better helps the you determine what needs to be done. High temperatures can be increase in all chemical reactions. When beer temperature increase of 10°C will double the reaction rate. At high temperature all beer compounds will be formed faster …

Wort Kettle

Wort Kettle

Wort boiling in kettle is a fundamental step in the production of good quality wort. A stable head on the beer and constant wort quality are your requirements besides an excellent overall quality. The technical requirements on the processes can be met with precision thanks to the perfect matching of the pre-heating and boiling phases in the right wort boiling …

Beer Fermentation Products

Beer Fermentation Products

The goal of fermentation is to metabolize the aerated wort into alcohol and other by products in order to produce beer with satisfactory quality by consumer. Also, to produce yeast cell that can be confidently re-used (re-pitching) into a new brew.
During fermentation, activity of the yeast cell will influence the character of the beer quality. Also, the good beer quality …

Brewhouse Yield

Brewhouse Yield

Brewhouse yield is the ratio of extract recovered in the wort compared to the extract in the raw materials used in the brewhouse plant. It is a measurement that tells the efficiency of the brewing.
Calculation of Brewhouse yield:
Brewhouse yield = Amount of extract in cold wort / Amount of extract from brewing materials
In generally, brewhouse yield should be al lest …

Alcohol Determination By Distillation

Alcohol Determination By Distillation

What is the method to determine alcohol content of beer?
The method for determination of alcohol content in beer relies on a distillation procedure that involves measuring the specific gravity of the resulting fractions. As can be seen picture on this post an alcohol fraction and a residue are formed by distillation of 100 g of degassed beer. The distillates as …

Yeast Flocculation What Brewers Should Know

Yeast Flocculation What Brewers Should Know

Flocculation of yeast is a process in which the brewing yeast cells lump together and sediment to the fermenter bottom. Yeast flocculation properties quite often cause problems to the beer quality due to too fast sedimentation or too little sedimentation. Too fast flocculation may cause too slow beer fermentation rate at the last part of the fermentation and too slow …

How to remove diacetyl from beer?

How to remove diacetyl from beer?

Diacetyle is a part of carbohydrate metabolism. The formation of diacetyle starts
from pyruvate formed in glycolysis (EMP). ) is an organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3CO)2. It is a volatile, colourless liquid with an intensely buttery flavor or butterscotch-like aroma. The detection threshold of diacetyl in beer is typically between 0.12 and 0.15ppm.
Removal of diacetyl depends on:
1. Phase of …

Hot or Cold Wort Aeration?

Hot or Cold Wort Aeration?

Wort dissolved oxygen can be the most significant factor in determining the quality of the yeast, fermentation rate and beer flavors. Most breweries nowadays aerate their wort on the way from the brewhouse to the fermentation tank after the wort cooler. Aeration can be take place while the wort is cold or hot, both have their advantages respective disadvantages as …

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